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Physical wellbeing

Physical wellbeing includes all the things we do that either improve or reduce our physical health and quality of life. Being in good physical health benefits our mental wellbeing and enables us to live full and active lives.

Overall health

Rationale

The Australian Bureau of Statistics states that self reported health status is commonly used as a general indicator of health and wellbeing, revealing insight to a person’s perception of his or her own health at a given point in time.

Measure

Proportion of South Australian adults reporting good or better health:

Proportion of South Australian adults reporting at least 150 minutes per week of at least moderate physical activity

Source: South Australian Population Health Survey (SAPHS)

  • Respondents (18+ years) were asked to self report their own health status using the standardised SF1 question which has been commonly adapted from the Short Form 36 (SF-36) (Ware & Sherbourne 1992).

Physical activity

Rationale

Being physically active is important for people’s mental and physical health and wellbeing. Physical activity reduces the risk of many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, and Type II diabetes, as well as some cancers, and helps people to maintain a healthy weight. Being physically active also contributes to positive mental wellbeing, and relates to improved mood, reduced stress and anxiety, and greater quality of life.

This indicator aligns with the National Obesity Strategy 2022-2032 (Department for Health, 2022), the National Preventive Health Strategy 2021-2030 (Commonwealth of Australia, 2021) and Australia’s Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour guidelines (Department for Health, 2021)

Measure

Proportion of South Australian adults reporting at least 150 minutes per week of at least moderate physical activity:

Source: South Australian Population Health Survey (SAPHS)

  • Respondents (18+ years) were asked a series of questions to determine the proportion who engaged in at least 150 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week.

Secondary measure

Proportion of insufficiently active South Australian adults reporting walking for more than 30 minutes per week:

Source: South Australian Population Health Survey (SAPHS)

  • Respondents (18+ years) were asked a series of questions to determine the proportion of insufficiently active respondents (<150min/week moderate intensity exercise) who walked for at least 30 minutes per week.
  • Bouts of walking were included if the person reported walking continuously for at least 10 minutes for recreation, exercise or to get to and from places.


Nutrition

Rationale

Eating a diet consistent with the Australian Dietary Guidelines promotes good physical and mental health. It also prevents the development - and further progression - of dietary risk factors and diet-related chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease and certain cancers.

This indicator aligns with the National Obesity Prevention Strategy 2022-2032 (Commonwealth of Australia, 2022), the National Preventive Health Strategy 2021-2030 (Commonwealth of Australia, 2021), and the Australian Dietary Guidelines (National Health and Medical Research Council, 2012).

Measure

Proportion of South Australian adults meeting Australian Dietary Guidelines recommendations for the consumption of fruit and vegetables:

Children:

Source: South Australian Population Health Survey (SAPHS)

  • Respondents (adults 18+ years and children 2-17 years) were asked to report how many serves of fruit and vegetables they usually ate each day. A ‘serve’ of fruit was defined as one medium piece or two small pieces of fruit, one cup of diced pieces, or one tablespoon of dried fruit. A serve of vegetables was defined as half a cup of cooked vegetables or one cup of salad.
  • The recommended daily serves of fruit and vegetables for all ages and life stages is indicated by the Australian Dietary Guidelines (National Health and Medical Research Council, 2013).
  • A parent/carer proxy was used for respondents <16 years of age.

Secondary measure

Frequency of discretionary food consumption by South Australian adults (mean weekly consumption of fast food, mean weekly consumption of snacks and mean daily consumption of soft drinks or sport drinks)

Source: South Australian Population Health Survey (SAPHS)

  • Respondents (adults 18+ years and children 2-17 years) were asked how many times per week on average they had meals or snacks such as burgers, pizza, chicken or chips from places like McDonalds, Hungry Jacks, KFC, Dominos, or their local takeaway (fast food) and how many times per week on average they had snacks such as chocolate, lollies, cake, donuts, pastries, crisps, ice cream and sweet or savoury biscuits.
  • Respondents were asked what their soft drink consumption was on an average day. This included sports drinks or energy drinks but excluded sugar free drinks. The mean consumption (litres) of soft drink is presented of those respondents who reported consuming soft drinks.
  • A parent/carer proxy was used for respondents <16 years of age.

Healthy weight

Rationale

Achieving and maintaining a healthy weight lowers a person’s risk of developing chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes and some cancers. Being above or below a healthy weight can have a negative effect on growth, development and mental wellbeing.

This indicator aligns with the National Obesity Prevention Strategy 2022-2032 (Commonwealth of Australia, 2022) and the National Preventive Health Strategy 2021-2030 (Commonwealth of Australia, 2021).

Measure

Proportion of South Australian adults and children who are in the healthy weight range:

Source: South Australian Population Health Survey (SAPHS)

  • Respondents (adults 18+ years and children 5-17 years) were asked to self-report their height (without shoes) and weight (undressed in the morning) and their Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. A parent/carer proxy was used for respondents <16 years of age.
  • BMI is a measure of weight status and is calculated from body weight (kg) divided by height (m2). Respondents aged 18+ years were categorised according to the World Health Organization (2002). Categories of child weight status are calculated according to the standard international classification defined by Cole et al (2000).

Secondary measure

Proportion of South Australian children in the overweight compared with obese weight range:

Source: South Australian Population Health Survey (SAPHS)

  • Proportion of respondents (5-17 years) reported to be overweight or obese according to the standard international classification defined by Cole et al. (2000).

Alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use

Rationale

Excessive alcohol consumption can be associated with a range of short and long-term problems that may lead to hospitalisation for conditions including injuries and cancer. Additionally, alcohol intoxication can contribute to the incidence of domestic violence, public violence, sexual assault, motor vehicle fatalities and injuries, and other crimes.

Reducing the issues arising from excessive alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking and illicit drug use is consistent with the National Drug Strategy 2017–2026 (Commonwealth of Australia, 2017) and the SA Tobacco Control Strategy.

Measures

Alcohol: Risky alcohol consumption: Prevalence of risky alcohol use behaviour (18 years old+)

Source: Population Health Survey Module System (PHSMS)

Tobacco use

Rationale

Tobacco smoking is the leading preventable cause of death and disease in Australia. It places a large burden on the South Australian community and health system.

Reducing the issues arising from excessive alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking and illicit drug use is consistent with the National Drug Strategy 2017–2026 (Commonwealth of Australia, 2017) and the SA Tobacco Control Strategy.

Measures

Tobacco: Daily tobacco smoking prevalence in the South Australian population (15 years old+)

Source: Population Health Survey Module System (PHSMS)

  • Respondents (15+ years) were asked if they were currently smoking cigarettes, cigars, pipes or any other tobacco products, and how often. The proportion that reported smoking daily are presented as daily smokers. Data are age standardised to the 2016 population.

Illicit drug use

Prevalence of illicit drug use (using illicit drugs or illicitly using pharmaceutical drugs) in the past 12 months (14 years old+):

Source: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) National Drug Strategy Household Survey (3 yearly).

  • Respondents (14+ years) were asked a series of questions to determine the proportion who used at least 1 of 16 classes of illicit drugs in the previous 12 months

Secondary measures

Age of onset (average age of initiation of alcohol consumption for 14+ year olds)

Age of onset (average age commenced daily smoking for 14+ year olds)

Age of onset (average age of initiation of illicit drug use for 14+ year olds)

Source: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) National Drug Strategy Household Survey (3 yearly)

  • Respondents (14+ years) were asked a series of questions to determine at what age they first consumed alcohol, used tobacco, and used at least 1 of 16 classes of illicit drugs in the previous 12 months.

Cancer screening

Rationale

Cancer screening tests save lives by detecting cancer before symptoms develop, when treatment is most simple and chances of full recovery are highest. In some cases, screening can also detect pre-cancerous signs and if treated, prevent cancer from developing in the first place. Early diagnosis reduces pressure on the health system by reducing the need for more expensive treatment options. There are three population based screening programs in Australia:

Measures

Participation rates for the three national cancer screening programs

Participation rates for women aged 50-74 years in BreastScreen Australia (24 month period)

Source: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) Primary and Community Health data tables.

  • The participation rate is the number of women (50-74 years) screened during the reference period as a percentage of the eligible female population, calculated as the average of the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Estimate Resident Population in each of the calendar years in the reference period. Reference periods are from 1 January at commencement to 31 December at end of the 24 month period.
  • Participation rates are age standardised to the 2001 Australian population at 30 June 2001.
  • Data include all women screened in SA, regardless of state/territory of residence.
  • The decline in screening in 2019-2020 likely reflects in part the impact of COVID-19 restrictions as BreastScreen Australia services temporarily closed, or operated at a reduced capacity.
  • Data for 2019–2020 are preliminary and may be subject to revision.

National Cervical Screening Program participation:

Progression towards 5 year participation for women aged 25-74 years in the National Cervical Screening Program

Source: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) National Cervical Screening Program monitoring report 2021: supplementary data tables

  • A new National Cervical Screening Program commenced in December 2017, at which time cervical screening changed from a Pap test every 2 years to a Cervical Screening Test (CST) every 5 years. As such, reporting on cervical screening participation rates is in a period of transition, and program participation rates cannot be calculated until 5 years of data are available from program commencement.
  • The progression towards 5 year participation uses the same population that will be used for 5 year participation over the years 2018–2022, which will be the first data to allow 5 year participation to be calculated. Each year, the numerator is increased by a calendar year, while the denominator remains the same. This measures progression towards 5-year participation. Currently only the years 2018, 2018–2019 and 2018–2020 can be reported. Future years will allow the addition of 2018–2021 and finally, 2018–2022, at which time the 5-year participation for 2018–2022 will be able to be measured.
  • The proportion presented is the number of people who had a screening Human Papillomavirus (HPV) test (reason for test of primary screening or repeat HPV test) as a percentage of the average ABS estimated resident population for females aged 25–74 over the 5 years 2018–2022 adjusted to exclude the estimated number of people who have had a hysterectomy (using age specific hysterectomy fractions derived from the AIHW National Hospitals Morbidity Database).

National Bowel Cancer Screening Program participation:

Participation rates for persons aged 50-74 in the National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (24 month period)

Source: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) Primary and Community Health data tables.

  • The participation rate is defined as the percentage of people invited to screen (Australian’s aged 50-74 years) through the National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) between 1 January and 31 December of the 2 year rolling period who returned a completed screening test within that period or by 30 June of the following year.
  • The number of individuals who were sent a screening invitation excludes those who suspended or opted out without completing their screening test.
  • The 2019–2020 results are preliminary.

Chronic conditions

Rationale

Chronic conditions such as arthritis, asthma, cancer and cardiovascular disease can have multiple and complex causes. Chronic conditions are not usually immediately life threatening, however, they are a major burden on society, individuals, and health services and systems as they cause substantial ill health, disability and premature death.

This indicator aligns with the National Preventive Health Strategy 2021–2030 (Commonwealth of Australia, 2021) and Australia’s Primary Health Care 10 Year Plan 2022­–2032 (Commonwealth of Australia 2022).

Measure

Prevalence of one or more chronic conditions (physical):

Source: South Australian Population Health Survey (SAPHS)

  • Respondents (18+ years) were asked a series of questions to determine the proportion that have one or more chronic conditions. These include diabetes, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, arthritis, osteoporosis, and cancer.

Road trauma

Rationale

Lives lost and serious injuries from road trauma devastate families, friends and communities. First responders and support services personnel feel the impacts too. The South Australian Government is adopting targets of at least 50% reduction in lives lost and at least 30% reduction in serious injuries on South Australian roads by 2030. These are outlined in South Australia's Road Safety Strategy to 2031 and will be supported for inclusion in the National Road Safety Strategy 2021-2030.

Measure

Number of lives lost and number of serious injuries on South Australian roads – number per year and 3 year rolling averages

Source: Department for Infrastructure and Transport - Road Safety, Policy and Research Directorate.

  • Lives lost: A person who dies within 30 days of a crash as a result of injuries sustained in that crash.
  • Serious injury: A person who sustains injuries and is admitted to hospital for a minimum period of an overnight stay as a result of a road crash and who does not die as a result of those injuries within 30 days of the crash.
  • Rolling averages presented are the average number of lives lost or number of serious injuries in the 3-year period up to and including that year (e.g. 2017 includes 2015 – 2017)
  • 2021 fatality data: preliminary and subject to change. Serious injury data are currently unavailable for 2021.

Preventable hospitalisation

Rationale

South Australia faces significant challenges to improving health outcomes and ensuring that the health system is sustainable. This results from the growing prevalence of complex and chronic conditions and an ageing population. Managing an increased demand for health care creates pressure for the available health resources in the community, in general practice and in hospitals.

The preventable hospitalisations indicator aligns with the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare’s Potentially Preventable Hospitalisations indicator as a proxy measure of both health outcomes and the effectiveness of primary care systems. This includes the use of policy interventions, and access to primary health care between populations and geographical areas.

Measures

Rates of potentially preventable hospitalisations for chronic conditions, acute conditions and vaccine preventable conditions:

Source: Enterprise Data and Information - Health Information Portal (HIP).

  • Proportion of potentially preventable hospitalisations for chronic conditions, acute conditions and vaccine preventable conditions has been presented as a total of all potentially preventable hospitalisations. Total potentially preventable hospitalisations are presented for financial years.
  • Vaccine preventable condition: Influenza/Pneumonia, Other vaccine.
  • Chronic condition includes: Nutrition, Bronchiectasis, Rheumatic Heart Disease, Hypertension, Asthma, Angina, Iron Deficiency Anaemia, Diabetes Complications, Congestive Cardiac Failure, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
  • Acute condition includes: Eclampsia, Pneumonia (Non Vaccine), Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, Perforated/Bleeding Ulcer, Gangrene, Convulsions/Epilepsy, Ear Nose Throat, Cellulitis, Urinary Tract Infections, Dental.

Secondary measure

Source: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) National Drug Strategy Household Survey (3 yearly)

  • 12 year old mean DMFT (decay-missing-filled teeth) (of children attending SA School Dental Service:

Source: SA Dental, CALHN, SA Health.

  • The presented figure is the 12 year old mean decayed, missing or filled permanent teeth (DMFT) of children attending SA School Dental Service. The number of DMFT is a measure of tooth decay experience, and 12-year old DMFT rates are an international measure of child oral health.

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